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CKD progress stage 3 to 4

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    • Baja iwf (114) Sun09,20:21pm

      sesuai post saya yang terakhirツdisini, rumah dua pohon sedang dalam pembangunan tahap 2 dengan material utama menggunakan baja. baja adalah material konstruksi yang paling padat apabila dibandingkan dengan beton dan kayu karena memiliki berat satuan yang cukup besar. karena baja bisa difabrikasi di pabrik, pemasangan di site bisa lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan beton yang mesti dicetak dan ditun…

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CKD progress stage 3 to 4

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 4 is on the path to kidney failure, but there is little information on the risks associated with progression to Stage 4ツper se. The objective of this study is to determine how progression from Stage 3 to Stage 4 CKD alters morbidity and mortality in a referred cohort of patients.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study consisting of 1607 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30窶59 mL/min/1.73 m2ツreferred to a nephrologist at a tertiary care center in Ontario, Canada, between January 2001 and December 2008. Interim progression from Stage 3 to Stage 4 chronic kidney disease was defined by two independent outpatient eGFR values <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Death, acute kidney injury (AKI) and all-cause hospitalizations subsequent to Stage 4 progression, but prior to the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), ascertained from administrative databases.

Results

The mean (standard deviation) baseline eGFR was 43 (8) mL/min/1.73 m2. Over 2.66 years (interquartile range: 1.42窶4.45), 344 (21%) patients progressed to Stage 4, 47 (3%) developed ESRD, 188 (12%) patients died, 143 (9%) were hospitalized with AKI and 688 (43%) were hospitalized for any reason. Compared with patients who did not progress to Stage 4, those who did progress had significantly higher adjusted risks of death [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.75窶3.75], AKI (HR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.44窶3.74) and all-cause hospitalization (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.45窶2.42).

Conclusions

Progression from Stage 3 to Stage 4 CKD is associated with increased risks of death, AKI and hospitalization prior to ESRD.

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